Some recommendations for protecting your child around the pool, recognizing that nothing will protect your child entirely from drowning hazards:

  • Children should never swim alone or only with other children. An adult must always be present when children are in a pool.
  • Pay attention when your child is in a pool; don’t read, do chores, talk or text.
  • Give your children swimming lessons and learn about water safety.
  • Don’t leave toys in the pool when they’re not in use.
  • Empty the wading pool when it’s not in use and store it upside down.
  • Place the pool in a fenced-in area of the yard. The fencing should be non-climbable, at least 4 feet high, have a self-closing and self-latching gate that opens away from the pool. Ideally, this should be isolation fencing, which is four-sided fencing that goes around only the pool.
  • Be sure there are no spaces under the fence or between uprights that are more than four inches wide.
  • Have a pool cover that is a safety cover; don’t use clip-on covers for above-ground pools.
  • Remove any items that could be used by a child to gain entry to the pool area.
  • If possible, remove any steps or ladders leaning from the ground to the pool when the pool is not in use and keep these items locked away.
  • Use door locks and alarms to prevent children from going to the pool area when there’s no adult to supervise them.
  • Keep a life preserver, first aid kit, phone, and a hook to retrieve your child near the pool.
  • Learn CPR.
  • Teach your children to stay away from pool drains.
  • Don’t allow children to wear dangly necklaces or wear their hair long and loose in or around the pool, to prevent getting entangled in a drain.

No matter what kind of Bug repellent you use, remember:

  • Grownups, not kids, should do the applying.
  • Spray in an open area to minimize how much of the stuff you breathe in.
  • When applying to the face, spray some into your hand and then rub it on the face (steering clear of the eyes and mouth).
  • Wash your hands, so that you don’t end up inadvertently mixing bug spray with your food.
  • Try to use a product geared for the amount of time you need, rather than reapplying (especially when using a DEET product).
  • Don’t buy combination sunscreen-insect repellent products, for just this reason–sunscreen is something you should reapply.
  • Don’t use it on open skin.
  • Dress kids in light-colored clothing–and spray the clothing.
  • Give kids a good washing at the end of the day with soap and water, and be sure to wash sprayed clothing before it’s worn again.

The sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays can damage your skin in as little as 15 minutes. Follow these recommendations to help protect yourself and your family.


You can reduce your risk of skin damage and skin cancer by seeking shade under an umbrella, tree, or other shelter before you need relief from the sun. Your best bet to protect your skin is to use sunscreen or wear protective clothing when you’re outside—even when you’re in the shade.


Loose-fitting long-sleeved shirts and long pants made from tightly woven fabric offer the best protection from the sun’s UV rays. A wet T-shirt offers much less UV protection than a dry one. Darker colors may offer more protection than lighter colors. Some clothing certified under international standards comes with information on its Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF), which tells you how much protection you can expect to get from that article of clothing.

If wearing this type of clothing isn’t practical, at least try to wear a T-shirt or a beach cover-up. Keep in mind that a typical T-shirt has an SPF rating lower than 15, so use other types of protection as well.


For the most protection, wear a hat with a brim all the way around that shades your face, ears, and the back of your neck. A tightly woven fabric, such as canvas, works best to protect your skin from UV rays. Avoid straw hats with holes that let sunlight through. A darker hat may offer more UV protection.

If you wear a baseball cap, you should also protect your ears and the back of your neck by wearing clothing that covers those areas, using sunscreen with at least SPF 15, or by staying in the shade.


Sunglasses protect your eyes from UV rays and reduce the risk of cataracts. They also protect the tender skin around your eyes from sun exposure.

Sunglasses that block both UVA and UVB rays offer the best protection. Most sunglasses sold in the United States, regardless of cost, meet this standard. Wrap-around sunglasses work best because they block UV rays from sneaking in from the side.


Put on sunscreen before you go outside, even on slightly cloudy or cool days. Don’t forget to put a thick layer on all parts of exposed skin. Get help for hard-to-reach places like your back. And remember, sunscreen works best when combined with other options to prevent UV damage.

How sunscreen works. Most sun protection products work by absorbing, reflecting, or scattering sunlight. They contain chemicals that interact with the skin to protect it from UV rays. All products do not have the same ingredients; if your skin reacts badly to one product, try another one or call a doctor.

SPF. Sunscreens are assigned a sun protection factor (SPF) number that rates their effectiveness in blocking UV rays. Higher numbers indicate more protection. You should use a sunscreen with at least SPF 15.

Reapplication. Sunscreen wears off. Put it on again if you stay out in the sun for more than two hours and after swimming, sweating, or toweling off.

Expiration date. Check the sunscreen’s expiration date. Sunscreen without an expiration date has a shelf life of no more than three years, but its shelf life is shorter if it has been exposed to high temperatures.

Cosmetics. Some makeup and lip balms contain some of the same chemicals used in sunscreens. If they do not have at least SPF 15, don’t use them by themselves.